A study published in 2018 shows a threshold where temperatures could rise to 4 or 5 degrees (ambiguous expression, continuity would be « 4-5 degrees Celsius ») compared to pre-industrial levels, compared to pre-industrial levels, thanks to returns of self-amplitude in the climate system, indicating that this threshold is below the 2-degree temperature target agreed in the Paris climate agreement. Study author Katherine Richardson points out: « We find that in its history, the Earth has never had a nearly stable state, warmer than that of pre-industrial, and suggests that there is a significant risk that the system itself, because of all these other processes, will want to continue warming, even if we stop emissions. This means not only reducing emissions, but much more.  c) Reconciling financial flows with a way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development. The initial commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol was extended until 2012. This year, at COP18 in Doha, Qatar, delegates agreed to extend the agreement until 2020 (without some industrialized countries withdrawing). They also reaffirmed their commitment made at COP17 in Durban, South Africa, in 2011, to create a new global climate treaty by 2015 that would require all major emitters not included in the Kyoto Protocol, such as China, India and the United States, to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The new treaty – which was to become the Paris Agreement – was to completely replace the Kyoto Protocol by 2020. However, the Paris agreement came into force earlier than expected in November 2016. The Economic and Financial Affairs Council adopted conclusions on the financial aspects of climate change in the run-up to the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP25).
The EU and its Member States remain the leading provider of public climate finance. Their total contributions amounted to 21.7 billion euros in 2018, compared to 20.4 billion in 2017. This recent figure reflects the EU`s determination to increase its international contribution to the fight against climate change by 2020 and by 2025 to the target of $100 billion per year for industrialized countries. Since Trump`s announcement, U.S. envoys – as well as on behalf – have continued to participate in U.N. climate negotiations to shore up the details of the agreement. Meanwhile, thousands of heads of state and government have intervened across the country to fill the void created by the lack of federal climate leadership, reflecting the will of the vast majority of Americans who support the Paris agreement. City and state officials, business leaders, universities and individuals included a base amount to participate in initiatives such as America`s Pledge, the United States Climate Alliance, We Are Still In and the American Cities Climate Challenge. Complementary and sometimes overlapping movements aim to deepen and accelerate efforts to combat climate change at the local, regional and national levels. Each of these efforts focuses on the willingness of the United States to work toward the goals of the Paris Agreement, despite Trump`s attempts to lead the country in the opposite direction.
Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue to be required, as an « Annex 1 » country under the UNFCCC, to end national communications and establish an annual inventory of greenhouse gases.  The Katowice package adopted at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP24) in December 2018 contains common and detailed rules, procedures and guidelines that inform the Paris Agreement.