Paris Agreement 2016 Pdf

While mitigation and adjustment require more climate funding, adjustment has generally received less support and has mobilized fewer private sector actions. [46] A 2014 OECD report showed that in 2014, only 16% of the world`s financial resources were devoted to adaptation to climate change. [50] The Paris Agreement called for a balance between climate finance between adaptation and mitigation, highlighting in particular the need to strengthen support for adaptation from the parties most affected by climate change, including least developed countries and small island developing states. The agreement also reminds the parties of the importance of public subsidies, as adjustment measures receive less public sector investment. [46] John Kerry, as Secretary of State, announced that the United States would double its grant-based adjustment funding by 2020. [33] Some of the specific results of the increased attention to adjustment financing in Paris are the announcement by the G7 countries of a $420 million package for climate risk insurance and the launch of a Climate Risk and Early Warning Systems (CREWS) initiative. [51] In 2016, the Obama administration awarded a $500 million grant to the « Green Climate Fund » as « the first part of a $3 billion commitment made at the Paris climate talks. » [52] [53] [54] To date, the Green Climate Fund has received more than $10 billion in commitments. The commitments come mainly from developed countries such as France, the United States and Japan, but also from developing countries such as Mexico, Indonesia and Vietnam. [33] Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue, as a UNFCCC Schedule 1 country, to prepare national communications and an annual inventory of greenhouse gases. [91] Although the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon,[67] criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of « promises » or goals, not firm commitments.

[98] He called the Paris talks a fraud with « nothing, only promises » and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming. [98] At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument for climate action from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015. [62] The goal of the agreement is to reduce the global warming described in Article 2 and to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC by:[11] When the agreement reached on October 5, 2016 enough signatures to cross the threshold, U.S. President Barack Obama said, « Even if we reach every goal… we will only get to part of where we need to go. He also said that « this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change. » It will help other nations reduce their emissions over time and set bolder goals as technology progresses, all under a strong transparency system that will allow each nation to assess the progress of all other nations. [27] The Paris Agreement was launched at the signing on April 22, 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York. [59] After the agreement was ratified by several EU member states in October 2016, there were enough countries that had ratified the agreement to produce enough greenhouse gases in the world for the agreement to enter into force. [60] The agreement came into force on November 4, 2016. [2] The Paris Agreement [3] is an agreement within the framework